SHELLS AND SEA LIFE
A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE
$3.00 January, 19feooio Volume 17, Number 1
V" ' ^
m r V
K)» * **|| *"*,« %'*:, '**
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Calliostoma variegatum Carpenter, 1864. 25 mm specimen photo-
graphed by Ronald L.Shimek at30 mdepth, Effinghamlnlet, (fijord west
side of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada), 18 July, 1984.
IN THIS ISSUE: Cones, Olives, Murex, Cowries,
Abalone, Ceriths, Land Shells and more!
Here we go with 1985 — our 17th year of monthly publication. The
past year has seen tremendous growth and not without a few problems.
We still have not been able to get the issues out early in the month on a
regular basis but hope to settle into a smoother production schedule this
year. We changed printers 5 times last year, working to keep the quality
high while controlling costs. We also purchased a major typesetting
capabiltity and other production equipment so that we could ensure the
magazine quality and accuracy. The format change has been in mind for
several years now and is the "final" step toward our goals.
Each month you will see the latest information on shells and sea life
with more pages in color and more articles this year. Our goal is to
provide a unique publication for everyone who enjoys mollusks, from
beginner to professional, with everything you want to pursue your
This issue has over a dozen shell articles. Our new page size allows us
to include many more articles and to separate things soyou canlook atthe
table of contents and go right to your favorite subject. The convientsize
will also make Shells and Sea Life easier to read and use wherever you
are. Our goal isn't to knock your eyes out but to make our information
more useful —■ easier to find, easier to read, easier to understand. The
new type size is designed to get more information in each issue without
Each month's issue will include more short articles so that you will find
several things of interest. We will also have one or more feature articles
of longer length for in-depth coverage of important subjects. Finally, to
make the complex tales we tell easier to understand, were grouping more
of our subjects into bite-size pieces. We like the short notes with a
photograph or two along with a simple description of what happened and
where the subject came from. Your comments indicate that you like the
same type of articles. Let us know how we are doing.
A special thanks to all of our Editorial Review Board for their labors
last year. We also thank Kenneth Boss, Jack Brookshire, CM. Burgess,
Anthony D'Atillio, William K. Emerson, Jerry Haraseywich, Roland
Houart, Russ Jensen, Eveline Marcus, James H. McLean, Robert
Robertson, Joseph Rosewater, Barry Roth, Walter Sage, Emily H. Vokes
and R.C. Willan for help reviewing articles. Finally, thanks to all of you
who wrote or called with suggestions, comments and criticisms.
* * * * *
We have received word of the passing of two friends in recent weeks.
Torry C. Orest died November 19, 1984 and Faye Howard de Montano
died on December 14, 1984. We hope to have additional information in
the February issue.
2 S&SL - January, 1985
SHELLS and SEA LIFE
January, 1985 Contents Volume 17, Number 1
04 NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Looking both ways.
07 Working Abalone Shell is Hazardous. Russ Jensen
08 DEALING WITH DEALERS: "Gem" Condition; does it Exist?
09 ON THE REEF WITH BOB PURTYMUN: Cerithium,
Pseudostomatella, & Conus.
1 1 The "Cabbage Patch" Snails. John Bernard
12 Albino Black Abalone Update. David W. Behrens
13 The Status of "Murex" funafutiensis Hedley, and some Favartia
Species. Walter O. Cernohorsky
15 Announcement: Delaware Museum of Natural History.
16 YOUR COLLECTION -- A HOW-TO COLUMN: No. 6. Why make
a Catalog? Susan J. Hewitt
16 Announcement: Smithsonian Position Available.
17 Common Names List of North American Marine
Gastropods, Part 3. American Malacological Union
27 Sand Trails. Stephanie Prince r
28 The Camaenidae, a Diverse Family of Land Mollusks, Part 1.
Richard L. Goldberg
32 PERSONAL NOTES
34 Seashell Stamps. Tom Rice ; 2;gJ
36 Photographic Techniques. David K. Mulliner ^2
39 Observations of a Dwarf Octopus, Octopus micropyrsius, ~
Peter L. Haaker ^ &
Editorial Staff Articles containing descriptions of new or
Managing Editor Steven J. Long repositioned taxa will be given priority provided
Assistant Editor Sally Bennett the holotype(s) have been deposited with a
Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch recognised public museum and museum
Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner numbers are included with the manuscript. We
Contributing Editor Tom Rice undertake no responsibility for unsolicited
material sent for possible inclusion in the
Editorial Review Board publication. No material submited will be
R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens returned unless accompanied by return postage
Hans Bertsch Kerry B. Clark and packing. Reprints will be supplied at $0.15
Walter O. Cernohorsky Malcolm Edmunds per page provided they are ordered prior to
Eugene V. Coan Terrence Gosliner publication.
Michael T. Ghiselin James R. Lance SHELLS and SEA LIFE ISSN 0747-6078 is
George L. Kennedy T.E. Thompson published monthly for $20 per year by Steven J.
William G. Lyons Long & Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena,
Phoenix, AZ 85012. Second-Class Postage Paid
SHELLS and SEA LIFE was formerly known at Phoenix, AZ. POSTMASTER: Send address
as the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER. changes to SHELLS and SEA LIFE, 505 E.
The magazine is open to articles and notes on Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Telephone (602)
any aspect of malacology orrelated marine life. 274-3615. U.S. postal ZIP code areas, add $4
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© Copyright Steven J. Long & Sally Bennett 1984
NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Looking both ways.
Janus was the Roman God of gates and beginnings, represented by two
opposite faces. As we begin anew year,it is traditional toreview thepast
year and look forward. It is certainly appropriate for a monthly column
to tie up loose ends and warn readers what is in store for them in the com-
During the last twelve months, I have discussed a diversity of mollusks
and other marine invertebrates, various evolutionary adaptions, and
In October, I illustrated two camouflaged commensal shrimp on the
eastern Pacific crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster elisii. Alex
Kerstitch kindly informed me that the shrimp are the wide ranging and
color variable Indo-Pacif ic Periclimenes soror. If you had difficulty spot-
ting the shrimp (page 184), they are on the left hand side of the picture
(not right as stated in the figure explanations); the printed photo wasori-
ented differently than I had intended. [Sorry Hans, Sally].
During the summer months, I discussed the biology and anatomy of
species of Cyphoma. In October, Dr. Terrence Gosliner and I were diving
on Dave Mulliner's "secret reef south of Isla Coronado in Bahia de Los
Angeles, Baja California, Mexico. We found a pair of Cyphoma
emarginatum. The dark brown and cream striations on the mantle are
obvious and prominent; there are also small pointed papillae projecting
from the mantle surface.
BELOW: Cyphoma emarginatum . October, 1984.
S&SL - January, 1985
ABOVE: Jenneria pustulata juvenille, October, 1984, 18 mm.
BELOW: Cypraea granulata . October. 1984, 25 mm, 20 mm.
S&SL - January, 1985
In February I wrote about Jenneria pustulata, during the same October
expedition to Bahfa de Los Angeles (Terry, Dave and I were also accompa-
nied by Dr. Antonio J. Ferreria and California Acadamy of Sciences'
curatorial assistants Robert Van Syoc and David Catania). I found
various specimens of Jenneria pustulata. Two were probably a male and
female pair since I also found their small round pinkish-red egg capsules
underneath them. The adult shell is distinctive with thehard knobs bril-
liantly colored orange with an encircling brownish band. At one of my
favorite dive sites I found a small juvenile (with bulla-like shell) at 7 m
depth. The photo shows some very interesting features. Note the
extremely long, dendritic papillae. The orange dots and brown rings are
obvious. However, these colors are in the mantle skin,not theshell. The
bulloid shell is darkish gray brown without the spots. The orange spots
on the mantle may well be indicative of secretory processes that will
deposit the adult shell coloration.
The Hawiian Islands are an exciting evolutionary showcase of specia-
tion and adaption. Their distance from other islands and land masses has
made it difficult for marine organisms to reach the islands by larval
transport on oceanic currents. Hence, there is a fair amount of endemic
Cypraea granulata Pease, 1863, is one such endemic species. Known
only from the Hawaiian Islands, it has been found in Pleistocene fossil
deposits on Oahu and Molokai. The 25 mm shell is pinkish-gray, rough
textured with marginal and ventral ridges (the apertural teeth continue
around the side of the shell partly reaching the dorsal surface), and
numerous nodules on the dorsal side. It is a distinctive exception among
the characteristically smooth-shelled cowries.
The mantle of Cypraea granulata is brownish with dark striations and
white mottling. It has long papillae (some nearly half the length of the
shell) which branch distally.
During the coming year I look forward to writing about numerous
interesting features of the ocean. Anthony D'Attilio is letting me pho-
tograph specimens of Angaria in the collections of the San Diego Natural
History Museum. Among other topics I will be discussing and
illustrating species of Hawiian miters, Conus dusavelli (H. Adams, 1872),
and molluscan egg masses. Throughout the coming months, I will share
with you many interesting and intriguing facets of the evolution and
ecology of shells and sea life.
Bertsch.Hans & Scott Johnson. 1983. Zoogeograffacomparativa delos opistobranquios (Mollusca:
Gastropoda) con enfasis en la cuenca Pacffica Hawaii y California): composicion faunal,
afinidades provinciales y densidad submareal. Ciencias Marianas, 8(2):125-153.
Zinsmeister, W.J. & William K. Emerson. 1979. The role of passive dispersal in the distribution of
hemipelagic invertebrates, with examples from the tropical Pacific Ocean. Veliger, 22(l):32-40.
Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 West Point Loma Blvd. #83, San Diego CA 92107.
6 S&SL - January, 1985
Working Abalone Shell is Hazardous!!!
by Russ Jensen
You can tumble abaloneshell infine quartzsand. Put ina barrel(tum-
bler) with enough water to cover them and rotate for 1 to 2 days. Wash
thoroughly and put in barrel (tumbler)with twoounces of tripoli for each
6 pounds of shells. Tumble for 12 to 15 hours. Wash and dry thoroughly.
Fill tumbler half full with shells, then add sawdust from a hardwood for
cushioning. Add polish of your choice at ratio of two ounces to 6 pounds
of shell. Run dry for 2 to 3 hours. Wash and admire.
CAUTION: Remember when tumbling abalone shells, they emit a poi-
sonous gas. Release the gasses every day and do it outdoors. DO NOT
inhale the gas fumes from the abalone.
Abalone shell is composed of two materials - a horny substance called
chitin and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate is present in two
forms: calcite and aragonite. Working abalone shell can be hazardous in
two ways. First - grinding, dry burns the chitin in the shell, producing a
toxic gas which may cause headaches and prolonged exposure could possi-
bly cause serious illness. Second - the dust produced when the shell is
worked is so fine that it floats readily in the air. This dust contains tiny
crystals which, under magnification, are seen to have many razor-sharp,
jagged edges. Inhaled, these micro-crystals cut and slash the delicate
lung tissues with each breath movement. The injured tissue is easily
infected. Miners' disease (or emphysema) often results from breathing
calcium carbonate dust.
Do all sanding, grinding, and polishing VERY WET. Wear a WET
dust mask. When finished working, wash away ALL mud from tools,
bench, apron, hands and clothes with lots of water because when the mud
dries out it is again dangerous.
(This article prompted by an accident in a high school. The teacher
didn't realize the danger. Information taken in partfrom O.L.FryeVRed
Abalone, Queen of New World Gems.") [Russ Jensen, 2 Mt. Vernon Place,
Chadds Ford, PA 19317]
A new shell club has been formed to serve North
Pinellas, Pasco and Hillsborough Counties in
Florida, with meetings and other activities
bringing together beginners and experienced
shelters in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere.
They plan to meet the last Tuesday of each
month (excepy July and August), Plan to visit
them and get acquainted! For more details
write the club president, Carolyn Petrikin.P.O.
Box 1564, Palm Harbor, FL 33565, or call (813)
785-4761 or 343-9245.
S&SL - January, 1985
DEALING WITH DEALERS:
"Gem" Condition; does it Exist?
by David DeLucia
Most dealers are fair and ethical, and are fully aware of their
responsibility as far as "truth in advertising" is concerned. However,
there are a few who, whether by design or accident, appear to mislead
potential customers, and you should be aware of what to look for.
I just received a list in the mail today which proudly proclaimed "all
shells in 'gem' condition unless otherwise noted". At best this is an
enthusiastic overstatement. True "gem" shells are about as rare as a
dealer who lists them correctly. Even in such genera as Cypraea or Oliva,
one has to be very careful. The shinysurface canhide amultitude of sins
which are usually not detected for a few weeks, when it's too late.
Dealers have developed a whole lexicon of terms which are used to
disguise the fact that only about one in 50 shells is atrue "gem". Onesuch
phrase is "gem for species." This has been used for cold water whelks
which are in "fine" class, at best. Besides being inaccurate, this is very
misleading. The prospective customer expects a specimen with only a
few natural flaws and is subsequently shocked to receive a shell with the
tip missing or the lip half gone.
Another phrase I see all the time is "gem except for...." This is a
contradiction in terms. The "except for" cancels out any possibility of
the shell being a gem. Nevertheless some dealers use the phrase because
the customer sees the word "gem" right away and first impressions are
important "gem, except for..." has been known to cover shells with filed
lips, tiny nacre flaws, or blunted spires. One list I saw the other day ran
as follows: "gem, except for three small chips in the lip, slight dorsal
mends, missing protoconch, and several pin holes". Wow! I was tempted
to order it just to see the part that was "gem" - perhaps the suture?
The obvious solution is for dealers to grade shells accurately with no
props. I suspect many are afraid that too many "goods" or "fines" will
discourage customers from ordering. Well, that may be true in cases
when the shell can be obtained in better condition, but at least if the
customer does order such an item he knows exactly what he is getting.
So, how does one assess a new dealers list? First of all most shells
should be in the "fine" to "fine+" range, with "gems" relatively rare.
"Good" or even "fair" is permissible with a genus such as Buccinum, for
example. One should avoid completely any list that uses no grading
system at all. In such a case, you have absolutely no way of knowing
what you are getting and could end up getting someone else's junk for
David DeLucia, 7 Sunset Hill Drive, Branford, CT 06405.
8 S&SL - January, 1985
ON THE REEF WITH BOB PURTYMUN: Cerithium .
Pseudostomatella & Conus .
We made our first dive of the trip in the lee of Wheeler Reef, about 90
kilometers N.E. of Townsville, Australia. This was the check-out dive.
The divemaster was checking us over to see what help he would have to
give the various divers. The calm water was about 10 m deep and was
crystal clear over brilliant white sand. As I drifted down I could see
trails all over; we had anchored over a colony of Cerithium fasciatus
The shells were the largest and most colorful I had ever seen, no two
were alike. (Kiener, 1841 named this form C. /. procerum). For the next
61 minutes I worked the sand and coral rubble, occasionally turning a
coral slab, and ended my dive in only 3 m water behind the reef.
In all I found 26 different species. I left behind two Conus nussatella
Linnaeus, 1758 that I found in a jumble of dead antler coral. They were
tending a cluster of yellow egg capsules, (about 20 flat flakes, 2 mm thick
and 8-10 mm round).
BELOW: Cerithium fasciatus
S&SL - January, 1985
Some shells were new to me, like the Pseudostomatella maculata (Quoy
and Gaimard, 1834), which I found on a hard algae-covered substrate
under a coral slab.
BELOW: Pseudostomatella maculata
Others were old favorites, like the beautiful little Conus boeticus
Reeve, 1842. This is color form #2 in Jerry Wall's "Cone Shells". I
question whether his color forms#l and#2 shouldcarry thesame nameas
the animals are quite different. Also the periostracumon form#l is thin
and transparent, while on form #2 it is much thicker and has 6 to 8 bands
of hair-like tufts on the body whorl. I was very happy as I finned my way
back to the boat, what a great way to start a trip!
BELOW: Conus boeticus
t , %
Bob Purtymun, P.O. Box 643, West Point, CA 95255
S&SL - January, 1985
The "Cabbage Patch" Snails
by John Bernard
In June 1984, 1 sent some landsnails whichl hadfound inmy garden, to
Dr. [Harry G.] Lee for identification. He replied that they were juvenile
Mesodon downieanus (Bland, 1861), and that I should look for some adult
I wasn't sure where they lived in my garden, I just knew they were eat-
ing it! But I set about looking for some live adult snails for Dr. Lee (I
never did find a live mature one).
I do not use chemical sprays or fertilizers on my garden, but the day
after using a natural insect killer, I found a few large snails and several
little ones, dead under the plants I had sprayed.
I hunted in my garden morning, noon and night but to no avail - no
snails. However, early one morning - 3 am - Iarose andsure enough there
were several live snails eating my cabbage patch! They were all about 3-4
mm in length, and I knew from Dr. Lee that these were babies. I collected
about 20 in a small goldfish bowl and placed aluminum foil on top. I
thought I was smarter than they, and gave them some dead oak leaves to
eat, but I am not and they do not. They did not grow much on their diet of
oak leaves, and they laid no eggs.
At this time (July 1984) I had a brainstorm and decided to get a bigger
container for them and to supplement their diet. I placed them in a 5 gal-
lon fish tank with the oak leaves as well as some cabbage and lettuce
leaves. I placed this in my room, in which the temperature is 80-85°F in
the summer. In less than 3 months, there were egg cases on the glass!
This must be a good hatching temperature because in about 3 weeks there
were a lot of what looked like little white worms crawling on the glass.
They were 8 mm long with what looked like a pinhead on top. I took these
to be little shells.
At the end of 3 weeks these little worms had grown to have afoot 10 mm
long and 5 mm wide with a shell of 3.5 mm. The foot at this time was a
transparent white, and the shell was a golden cream in color. At 6 weeks
the foot was still white, but not transparent, 13 mm long and 6 mm wide.
The shell was 6 mm and still a golden color. At 10 weeks the foot was 16
mm long and 8 mm wide, with the shell now being 15 mm and turning tan
in color. At 12 weeks the foot was 30 mm long and 11.5 mm wide and
about 2.5 mm thick. The shell was now 18 mm and a brownish-tan in
Dr. Lee told me that they are mature at 15-20 mm but I do not really
know how big they get, though I have found dead broken ones in my gar-
den that were almost 30 mm. Who knows how big they will get as they
now have plenty of what they like toeat? If they need it,I will get thema
larger home, and even plant a bigger cabbage patch for their food supply!
Binney, W.G.& T.Bland 1869. Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America. Part I.Pulmonata
Geophila. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections No. 194, i-xii + 1-316, figs. 1-545, pis. 1-4.
John Bernard, Rt. 8 Box 480, Crossville, TN 38555.
S&SL - January, 1985 11
by David W. Behrens
In 1979 I reported the
collection of an
ambicolored "albino" female
black abalone, Haliotis
cracherodii Leach, 1817.
(California Fish & Game
61(l):54-55). The animal,
originally collected in
October, 1975, near Double
Rock, San Luis Obispo
County, California, then
measured 92 mm in length
and weighed 132 gms. As
reported the epipodium,
mantle and eyes of the
specimen were whitish to
cream yellow, while the
mantle cavity, viscera and
shell were of normal
coloration. Soon after the
original publication several
interest in the animal when
it succumbed. Well, they
will have a bit longer to
wait. This unique specimen
remains quite healthy in
the display aquarium of the
Pacific Gas & Electric Co.,
Laboratory at Diablo
Canyon, California. After 5
years it has grown to 129
mm in length. No weight is
available as I prefer not to
remove it from its
comfortable pose in the
of our laboratory.
David W. Behrens, Route 1
Box 70- A, Templeton, CA 93465
S&SL - January, 1985
The Status of " Murex " funafutiensis Hedley, and some
by Walter O. Cernohorsky
Dr. Emily Vokes (1984, Shells and Sea Life, !6(10):160) did solve the
identity of Murex peasei Tryon 1880, a species now considered
conspecific with Favartia poormani Radwin and D'Attilio, 1976, from the
west coast of America. "Favartia peasei" can now be expunged from the
Pacific muricid nomenclature, and a name must be found for the
specimen sent by Pease to Tryon and which is in the Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia No. 36144 (fig. 1). I think this is the species
Favartia garrettii (Pease, 1868) [a new name for Murex exigua Garrett,
1857 - not M. exiguus Broderip, 1833], described from rocky coasts of
Hawaii. This species itself has been misunderstood and specific shell-
characters have been usually interpreted on the basis of juvenile
specimens. Although Radwin and D'Attilio (1976) state that the shell
may reach 5.0 mm, I have seen several large Hawaiian specimens reaching
almost 14.0 mm in length. Pilsbry (1921) overlooked Garrett's previous
description and also Pease's re-naming of F. garrettii because he described
Figures 1-8. Favartia garrettii (Pease). 1. Specimen in ANSP No. 36144, ex-Pease; length 12.6mm.
2. Very worn holotype of Murex cyclostoma baldwiniana Pilsbry. ANSP No. 127835 from Maui Id.,
Hawaii; length 8.4 mm, width 5.3 mm. 3-4. Specimen from Nawiliwili, Kauai, Hawaii, leg. Dr.
Haas; length 10.6 mm, width 6.9 mm. 5. Same data, length 12.8 mm, width 7.4mm. 6. Specimen
from Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, USNM; length 11.7mm, width 7.7 mm. 7-8 . Holotype of Murex
sykesi Preston from Sri Lanka, B.M.(N.H.) No. 1905.2.8.7.; length 20.8 mm, width 18.0 mm.
S&SL - January, 1985
very worn specimens from Kailua and Maui as Murex cyclostoma
baldwiniana (fig. 2). Favartia species are prone to variation and F.
garrettii is no exception (see figs. 3-8). One would be hard pressed to try
and separate F. sykesi Preston, 1904 (figs. 7,8) from Sri Lanka, from F.
garrettii. It is my opinion that F. garrettii is not endemic to Hawaii but
has an Indo-Pacific distribution.
Figures 9- 10. Favartiabrevicula(Sowerby),8yntypeB.M.(N.H) No. 197488; le ngth 26.1 mm, width
Figures 11-12. " Murex " funafutiensig Hedley. holotype Australian Museum, Sydney No. C-6004;
length 8.4 mm, width 5.5 mm.
Figures 13-14. Cronia bicatenata (Reeve) from Sri Lanka, USNM; length 13.3 mm, width 7.0mm.
"Murex funafutiensis" Hedley, 1899, described from 40-80 fathoms at
Funafuti, Tuvalu, is another misunderstood species. It was placed in the
genus Pazinotus by Vokes (1971) and Fair (1976) [which on conchological
grounds is a reasonable placement], in Favartia by Radwin & D'Attilio
(1976) and in the subgeneric group Pygmaepterys by Vokes (1984). Both
Fair and Radwin & D'Attilio did not see actual specimens of the species
and merely repeated Hedley's original description. The holotype, which
is probably unique, measures 8.4 mm in length, has 5 mature whorls and
two and one-half embryonic whorls, 6 varices on the body whorl, 4
denticles on the outer lip, 3 minute denticles on the base of the columella,
S&SL - January, 1985
and distinct, close-set longitudinal striae (figs. 11,12). Although only a
radular examination will enable us to make a definite generic placement,
it is my opinion that M. funafutiensis is not congeneric with Favartia. The
latter genus, as defined by its type-species Favartia brevicula (Sowerby,
1834)[figs. 9,10], has strong spirally sculptured shells, a short, dorsally
recurved siphonal canal which is narrowly open or almost closed and the
aperture is small, ovate and narrowly rimmed. The species "Ricinula"
bicatenata Reeve, 1846 (figs. 13,14) has none of the features of Favartia
but is most similar to Cronia (Ergalatax) contracta (Reeve) in shell-
features, a species known by its thaidine and not muricine radula.
Fair, R.H. 1976. The Murex Book: an Illustrated Catalogue of Recent Muricidae (Muricinae,
Muricopsinae, Ocenebrinae). Honolulu, 138 pp., 23 pis., text figs.
Hedley, C. 1899. The Mollusca of Funafuti; Parti. Gastropoda. Mem. Austral. Mus.,3(7):398-488,
48 text figs.
Pilsbry, H.A. 1921. Marine Mollusks of Hawaii, XIV-XV. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
72:360-382, text figs.
Radwin, G E. & A. D ' Attilio 1976. Murex Shells of the World; an Illustrated Guide to the Muricidae.
Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California, 284 pp., 32 pis., text figs.
Vokes, E.H. 1971. Catalogue of the Genus Murex Linne (Mollusca: Gastropoda); Muricinae,
Ocenebrinae. Bull. Amer. Paleont., 6l(268):l-141.
Vokes, E.H. 1984. On the Identity of " Murex " peasei Try on, and its Generic Placement. Shells and
Sea Life, 16(10):160-161, text figs.
Walter O. Cernohorsky, Department of Malacology, Auckland Institute and Museum, Private Bag,
The Delaware Museum of Natu-
ral History, Greenville , Delaware,
is pleased to announce the appoint-
ment of Dr. Barbara H. Butler of
Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, as
director. Dr. Butler succeeds Mr.
Robert L. Dimit who left in
August, 1984 due to poor health
following an accident.
Dr. Butler is looking forward to
expanding and building on the
progress of recent years in making
the Delaware Museum of Natural
History a viable and vital resource
in the community. "The building,
location and collections are out-
standing," said Dr. Butler, "and, I
want to help the museum increase
its role in serving the public and
scientific community as an educa-
tional resource. Photo by M.J.
S&SL - January, 1985
YOUR COLLECTION — A HOW-TO COLUMN
No. 6. Why make a Catalog? Susan j. Hewitt
When you have amassed a good collection, perhaps all from one area,
nicely labelled lots, everything in order, then you should find yourself
considering cataloging the collection.
What does this mean? it means having a list, traditionally in a ledger
book, or, perhaps now on a computer, of everything that is in your
collection. Why do I need this? I hear you asking, when I already have
everything well labelled with information, and I know what I've got,
more or less. Well, there are several reasons. One good one is that
someone else, coming to look at your collection would find it hard to know
what you had from where, without lookingat everythinglot by lot. Even
if you have the collection arranged by order of classification it might be
hard to know if you had a particular species, especially if you placed it in
the wrong family.
Another excellent reason is that when you catalog a 'lot' (a group of
specimens of one species collected in the same locality on the same date).
You give that 'lot' a catalog number, (maybe the first number would be
00001). Every shell and the label(s) in that lot is given that number. Itis
usually written on the labelsand on the shells themselves, if they arelarge
enough, or on a slip of paper securely enclosed in thetube orbox in which
small shells or specimens are kept. Once a whole drawer of lots has its
catalog numbers, if you have the misfortune to drop the whole lot on the
floor, all the specimens and labels can easily be matched up.
I imagine that appropriate computer software may soon be available
for cataloging collections. This would certainly be more versatile than
the ledger system. Data storage and rapid data retrieval are what
cataloging is all about,and itis precisely these things that computerswere
originally designed to help us with.
In the meantime, those of us who are living without computers can
catalog perfectly well with the antique ledger and pen system.
Susan J. Hewitt, 75 Leonard St. #4 NE, New York, NY 10013
Announcement of Open Position
The Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, seeks candidates
for Zoologist GS-11/12/13 (starting at $25,489-36,327 per annum), to perform curatorial functions
and collections-oriented research in Systematic and Evolutionary Malacology. Candidates will be
evaluated according to the quality, breadth, progressiveness, and recency of research
accomplishments (publications) and academic study; museum curatorial and field experience;
relation of candidate's research to present Department collections and research strengths and needs;
and the potential for research interaction with other NMNH staff and outside colleagues.
Submit by 15 February, SF 171 (Personal Qualifications Statement), Curriculum vitae, copiesof
publications, and statement of long term research goals to: Smithsonian Institution, Office of
Personnel Administration: 900 Jefferson Drive SW, Rm. 1410, Washington D.C. 20560, ATTN.:
16 S&SL - January, 1985
Common Names List of North American Marine
Gastropods, Part 3. American Malacological Union.
Cllone llmaclna (Phipps, 1774).... ......A,P,Ac common cllone
Cllontna lcngicaudata (Souleyet, 1852) A,(P)
Paedoclione . dolllformls Danforth, 1907., . , A
Cliopsis krohni Troschel, 1854 A,(P)
Thllptodon dlaphanus (Meisenheimer , 1903). . . .. . ..A,P,
Cruclbranchaea macrochira (Meisenheimer, 1905). . ..A, (P).
P neumoderma atlanticum (Oken, 1815) .....A,(P).
Notobranchaea macdonaldl Pelseneer, 1886. A, (P),
Prlonoglossa tetrabranchlata (Bonnevie, 1913) A,(P),
Hydromyle8 globulosa (Rang, 1825) A,P...
A8cobulla ulla (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1970. ..A.
Cyllndrobulla beauil P. Fischer, 1856 A Beau paper-bubble
Oxynoe antillarum Morch, 1863.......... A Antilles oxynoe
Oxynoe azuropunctata Jensen, 1980 A,. blue-spot oxynoe
Lobigeridae souverbiei P. Fischer, 1856 A,(P) Souverbie lobiger
Berthelinia caribbea Edmunds, 1963 A. ...Caribbean bivalved snail
Bosellia corinneae Ev. Marcus, 1973 ...A
Bosellla marcusi Ev. Marcus, 1972 A
Bosellia mimetica Trinchese, 1891 A
Elysia canguzua Er. Marcus, 1955 .A • •••
Elysia catulus Gould, 1870 A kitty cat elysia
Elysia chlorotica (Gould, 1870) A eastern emerald elysia
Elysia evellnae Er. Marcus, 1957 A Eveline elysia
Elysia hedgpethl Er. Marcus, 1961 P Hedgpeth elysia
Elysia ornata (Swalnson, 1840) .....A ornate elysia
Elysia papillosa A.E. Verrill, 1901 A papillose elysia
Elysia patina Ev". Marcus, 1980 A
Elysia picta A.E. Verrill, 1901 A painted elysia
Elysia serca Er. Marcus, 1955 A. . .Caribbean seagrass elysia
Elysia subornata Verrill, 1901 A
Elysia tuca Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 A
S&SL - January, 1985 17
SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COK ION NAME
Tridachia crlspat a (Morch, 1863)... A let tree slug
Costaslella ocelllfera (Slmroth, 1895) A eyespot cos.asiella
Alderla modesta (Loven, 1844). .................. .A, P.. •••••modest alderla
Ercolanla coerulea Trlnchese, 1893 .A. ............. .blue stlliger
Ercolania costal Pruvot-Fol, 1951 A
Ercolanla funerea (A, Costa, 1867) A
Ercolania fuscata (Gould, 1870) A dusky stlliger
Llmapontla zonata Glrard, 1852 • A
Plea hansineensls Agersborg, 1923 ........P. .Hansine sea slug
Placida dendritica (Alder and Hancock, 1843) A,P •
P lacida klngstonl T.E. Thompson, 1977 A
Stlliger fuscovittatus Lance, 1962 A,P brovm-stre;k stlliger
Stiliger vossi Ey. Marcus and Er. Marcus, I960.. , ,A, Vons stlliger
(Codkerell and Eliot, 1905). ..P
Aplyslopsis smithl (Er. Marcus, 1961) P
Aplyslopsis zebra Clark, 1982 A
Hermaea cruciata Gould, 1870 A
Hermaea olivae MacFarland, 1966. P.
Hermaea vancouverensis (O'Donoghue, 1924) A,P,
Caliphylla mediterranea A. Costa, 1867 A
Cyerce antillensis Engel, 1927 A Antilles glass-slug
Cyerce crlstallina (Trlnchese, 1881)... A harlequin glass-slug
Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1970 A
Phyllobranchillus virldls (Deshayes, 1857) A, P..
Akera thompsoni Olsson and McGinty, 1951 A •
Aplysia brasiliana Rang, 1828. • • • • • A sooty sea-hare
Aplysla californica Cooper, 1863 ...P California sea-hare
Aplysia cervina (Dall and Simpson, 1901) ..A
Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 .A spotted sea-hare
Aplysia donca Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1959 A
Aplysia geographlca (A. Adams and Reeve, 1850), ,,?A
Aplysia Juliana Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 A,(P) .walking sea-hare
Aplysia morio A.E. Verrill, 1901 ....A giant black sea-hare
Aplysia parvula Guilding in^ Morch, 1863 ..A
Aplysia reticulopoda Beeman, 1960 P net-foot sea-hare
Aplysia vaccaria Winkler, 1955 .......P. giant black sea-hare
Aplysia willcoxi Heilprin, 1886 A Willcox sea-hare
Bursatella leachii pleli Rang, 1828. ...A. ragged sea-hare
Dolabrifera dolabrifera (Rang, 1828) A,(P) .warty sea-cat
Notarchus punctatus Philippi , 1836 • • A •
Petalifera petalifera (Rang, 1828) A,(P)
Petalifera ramosa Baba, 1959 A
Phyllaplysia cymodacea K. Clark, 1976 A...
Phyllaplysla engeli Er. Marcus, 1955 A
Phyllaplysia smaragda Clark, 1977 A emerald leaf-slug
Phyllaplysia taylorl Dall, 1900 ,..P zebra leaf -slug
Stylocheilus citrinus (Rang, 1828) A,(P)
Stylocheilus longicauda (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825). .A, (P)
18 S&SL - January, 1985
SCIENTIFIC NAME O^uRivEiiCE COMMON NAME
Tylodina amerlcana Dall, 1890 A
Tylodlna funglna Gabb, 1865 P yellow umbrella shell
Tylodlnella spongotheras Bertsch, 1980 . .P
Umbraculum umbraculum (Llghtfoot, 1786). ..A.... .Atlantic umbrella shell
Berthella agasslzll (MacFarland, 1909) A
Berthella californlca (Dall, 1900) P.. .California side-gill slug
Berthella sideralis TLovSn, 1847) (A),?P
Berthella tupala Er. Marcus, 1957 A
Berthelllna citrina (Ruppell and Leuckart, 1828).. P
Berthelllna engeli Gardiner, 1936 A,P
Pleurobranchus areolatus Morch, 1863 • .A, P. • .Atlantic side-gill slug
Pleurobranchus reesi White, 1952. ................ .A.
Pleurobranchus strongl MacFarland, 1966 P.
Ev. Marcus and Gosliner, 1984 A.
Pleurobranchaea californlca MacFarland, 1966 P,
Ev. Marcus and Gosliner, 1984 A.
Pleurobranchaea hedgpethi Abbott, 1952 ...A.
Pleurobranchaea inconspicua Bergh, 1897.. ........ .A.
Pleurobranchaea occidentalis Bergh, 1897 A.
Pleurobranchaea tarda A.E. Verrill, 1880 A.
Corambe pacifica MacFarland and O'Donoghue, 1929.. P frost-spot corambe
Doridella burchi Ev. Marcus and Er*. Marcus, 1967.. A.... Burch corambe
Doridella obscura A.E. Verrill, 1870 A obscure corabme
Doridella steinbergae (Lance, 1962) P Joan Steinberg corambe
Ancula evelinae Er. Marcus, 1961 ..A
Ancula glbbosa (Risso, 1818) A, Ac Atlantic ancula
Ancula lentiginosa Farmer in_ Farmer and
Sloan, 1964 P freckled ancula
Ancula pacifica MacFarland, 1905 P Pacific ancula
Hopklnsia rosacea MacFarland, 1905 .P Hopkins rose
Okenia angelensis Lance, 1966 P Angeles okenia
Okenia ascidicola Morse, 1972 A
Okenia cupel la (Vogel and Schultz, 1970) A.
Okenta lmpexa (Er. Marcus, 1957) A,
Okenia modesta A.E. Verrill. 1875 A,
Okenia plana Baba, 1960 P flat okenia
Okenia pulchella Alder and Hancock, 1854 A, Ac •
Okenia sapelona (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967). A Sapelo okenia
Okenia vancouverensls (O'Donoghue, 1921)..... P ..Vancouver okenia
Okenia zoobotryon (Small wood, 1910) • A
Trapanla dalva Ev. Marcus, 1972 ..A.
Trapania velox (Cockerell, 1901) P. swift brown-and-yellow
Acanthodoris armata O'Donoghue, 1927,. p >#>>
Acanthodorls atrogriseata O'Donoghue, 1927... P
S&SL - January, 1985 19
SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME
Acanthodorls brunnea MacFarland, 1905. P,. .Pacific brown spiny dorid
Acanthodorls caerulescens Bergh, 1880.. P,
Acanthodorls hudsoni MacFarland, 1905 P
Acanthodorls lutea MacFarland, 1925 P. ......... .orange peel dorid
Acanthodorls nanaimoensis O'Donoghue, 1921 P wine-plumed spiny dorid
(Ablldgaard in_ O.F. Muller, 1789) A,P,Ac hairy pilooe dorid
Cockerell ln^ Cockerell and Eliot, 1905. . .P. .. .black-tipped spiny dorid
Adalarla proxima (Alder and Hancock, 1854) A, Ac yellow false doris
Onchidorls aspera Alder and Hancock, 1842 ,A t
Onchldoris bilamellata (Linnaeus, 1767) .A, P, Ac. • .barnacle-eating
Onchidorls diademata Gould, 1870 .A
Onchldoris diaphana Alder and Hancock, 1845 «,A «••■•••
Onchldoris grisea Gould, 1870 „A
Onchldoris hystricina (Bergh, 1878) ( ,P fuzzy onchldoris
Onchidorls muricata (O.F. Muller, 1776) A,P,Ac raurlcate doris
Onchldoris tenella Gould, 1870 r ,A
Crlmora coneja Marcus, 1961 P........... rabbit dorid
Triopha catalinae (Cooper, 1863) ......P sea clown triopha
Triopha maculata MacFarland, 1905 .P. maculated triopha
Triopha occldentalis (Fewkes, 1889) P grand triopha
A.E. Verrlll and Emerton, 1882 A
Aegires albopunctatus MacFarland, 1905 P ..salt-and-pepper dorid
Nembrotha gratiosa Bergh, 1890 A ,
Issena pacifica (Bergh, 1894) A,P
Issena ramosa (A.E. Verrlll and Emerton, 1881). ...A
Lalla cockerell! MacFarland, 1905 P laila dorid
Polycera atra MacFarland, 1905. .........P orange-spike polycera
Polycera aurisula Er. Marcus, 1957 ....A Marcus polycera
Polycera chilluna Er. Marcus, 1961... A......
Polycera dubia (M. Sars , 1829) A
Polycera hedgpethl Er. Marcus, 1964 P Hedgpeth western
Polycera humml Abbott, 1952.... A.... ....Humm polycera
Polycera odhneri Er. Marcus, 1955 A..
Polycera rycia Ev. Marcus, 1970 A
Polycera tricolor Robllllard, 1971 P three-color polycera
Polycera zosterae O'Donoghue, 1924 .P. ......... .eelgrass polycera
Polycerella conyna Er. Marcus, 1957 A •
Polycerella davenportii Balch, 1899 A
Polycerella emerton! A.E. Verrlll, 1881 A
Cadlina f lavomaculata MacFarland, 1905 P yellow-spot cadllna
Cadllna laevis (Linnaeus, 1767) A, Ac. ..white Atlantic cadlina
Cadllna llmbaughl Lance, 1962 P
Cadlina marglnata MacFarland, 1905 P yellow-rim cadlina
Cadlina modesta MacFarland, 1966 P modest cadlina
Cadlina pacifica Bergh, 1879 P
Cadllna rutnia Er. Marcus , 1955 A.... ••
Cadlina scabriuscula (Bergh, 1890) A
20 S&SL - January, 1985
SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME
Cadllna 9parsa Odhnev, 1921 , P dark-spot cadlina
Chromodorls alia Er. Marcus, 1961..., A alia blue dorld
Chromodoris clench! (H.D. Russell, 1935) A neona blue dorls
Chromodorls dalll (Bergh, 1879) P
Chromodorls macfarlandl Cockerell, 190] P MacFarland blue dorld
Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 A
Chromodorls roseoplcta (A.E. Verrill, J900) ?.
Fellmare bayerl Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.. .A..
Hypselodorls califomiensls (Bergh, 1879) P California blue dorld
Hypselodorls edenticulata (White, 1952) A Florida regal dorld
Mexlchromls porterae (Cockerell, 1901)., P Porter blue dorld
Aphelodorls antlllensis (Bergh, 1879)... A
Sclerodorls tanya (Ev. Marcus, 1971)..,..... P feline dorld
Hallaxa chanl Gosllner and Williams, 1975.... P
Conualevia alba Collier and Farmer, 1964 P. ....white smooth-horn dorld
Aldisa cooperi Robilliard and Baba, 1972 P
Aldisa sanguinea (Cooper, 1863) P blood spot dorld
Aldisa zetlandica (Alder and Hancock, 1854) A, Ac.
Rostanga pulchra MacFarland, 1905..... P.*. red sponge dorid
Doris odonoghuel Steinberg, 1963........ ...P
Doris verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758..... A..
Siraius kyolis Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.. . .A. kyolis dorld
Dendrodoris krebsii (Morch, 1863) A,(P) Krebs dorid
Dendrodorls warta Ev. Marcus and Gallagher, 1976. .A
Doriopsilla albopunctata (Cooper, 1863).. P salted yellow dorid
Doriopsilla areolata (Bergh, 1880) A
Doriopsilla lela Er. Marcus, 1961 A
(Cockerell in Cockerell and Eliot, 1905). .P tiny black-spot dorid
Doriopsilla pharpa Er. Marcus, 1961 A
Phyllidlopsis papilligera Bergh, 1890 A
Archldorls montereyensis (Cooper, 1863) P Monterey sea lemon
Archldorls odhnerl (MacFarland, 1966) P white night dorid
Atagema alba (O'Donoghue, 1927) P hunchback dorid
Atagema prea (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967).. ..A.
Anisodorls nobllls (MacFarland, 1905) P Pacific sea lemon
S&SL - January, 1985 21
Anlsodorls prea Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967... A , ..
Anlsodorls lentlglnosa Mlllen, 1982 P... .. .mottled pale sea lemon
Anlsodorls work! Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.. A
Dlaulula sandlegensls (Cooper, 1863) P. ringed dorld
Dlscodorls alba White, 1952 A
Discodoris heathi MacFarland, 1905 P Heath gritty dorid
Discodoris evelinae Er. Marcus, 1955 A........
Discodoris phoca Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1959.. A
Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967... A....
Discodoris pusae Er. Marcus , 1955. ....A..
Geitodoris complanata (A.E. Verrill, 1880) A
Peltodoris greeleyl MacFarland, 1909 A
Taringa aivica timia
Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.... P.. dusky brown taringa
Taringa telopla disa
Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 A.........
Thordisa bimaculata Lance, 1966...... .....P • two-spot thordis
Thordisa rubescens Behrens and Henderson, 1981.... P .......red thordis
Jorunna pardus Behrens and Henderson, 1981... P. .......... ..leopard jorunna
Platydoris angustlpes (Morch, 1863) ....A.......
Platydoris macfarlandl Hanna, 1951 P MacFarland flat dorid
Tochuina tetraquetra (Pallas, 1788).... P giant orange tochui
Trltonia bayeri Ev. Marcus, 1978. ....A.. Bayer tritonia
Tritonla bayerl misa Er. Marcus, 1967. ........... .A. ... .«
Tritonia diomedea Bergh, 1894 A,P rosy tritonia
Tritonia festiva (Stearns, 1873) P diaraondback tritonia
Tritonia palmeri (Cooper, 1862) ....P
Tritonia wellsi Er. Marcus, 1961 A
Hancockla californica MacFarland, 1923 .P. ...... ...Hancock nudibranch
Dendronotus albopunctatus Robilliard, 1972 ...P
Dendronotus albus MacFarland, 1966 P whitef rond aeolid
Dendronotus dalli Bergh, 1879 P Dall frond aeolid
Dendronotus dlversicolor Robilliard, 1970. P multicolor frond aeolid
Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanlus, 1774) A,P,Ac frond aeolid
Dendronotus iris Cooper, 1863.. P .....giant frond aeolid
Dendronotus robustus A.E. Verrilll, 1870 • A robust frond aeolid
Dendronotus rufus O'Donoghue, 11921 ..P.... red frond aeolid
Dendronotus subramosus MacFarland, 1966. ........ ..P. stubby frond aeolid
Melibe leonina (Could, 1852) P lion nudibranch
Lomanotus stauberl Clark and Goetzfried, 1976..... A..
Scyllaea pelagica Linnaeus, 1758. A, (P). . ..sargassum nudibranch
22 S&SL - January, 1985
SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME
Phylllroe atlantlca Bergh, 1871 A
Phylllroe bucephalum P6ron and Lesueur, 1810......A •••••••••••••
Doto amyra Er. Marcus, 1961 P hammerhead doto
Doto chlca Er. Marcus, 1960 A
Doto columblana O'Donoghue, 1921 P British Columbia doto
Dot o coronata (Gmelln, 1791) • .A. ...,.,........,, .crown doto
Doto dlvae Er. Marcus , 1960 A
Doto doerga Ey. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1963 A.......
Doto formosa A.E. Verrlll, 1875 A ;
Doto kya Er. Marcus, 1961 P dark doto
Doto pita Er. Marcus, 1955 A
Doto uva Er. Marcus, 1955 A
Mlesea evellnae (Er. Marcus, 1957) A.
Armlna tlgrlna Raf lnesque, 1814 A.. tiger armlna
Armlna calif ornlca (Cooper, 1863) P California armlna
Dlrona albollneata Macfarland in Cockerell and
ITlot, 1905 P white-line dirona
Dlrona aurantia Hurst , 1966. .P. .golden dlrona
Dlrona picta Macfarland ^in^ Cockerell
and Eliot, 1905... P painted dirona
Antiopella barbarensis (Cooper, 1863) P cockscomb nudlbranch
Coryphella cooper! Cockerell, 1901 P.. blue-patch aeolld
Coryphella dlversa (Couthouy, 1839) A
Coryphella fusca O'Donoghue, 1921 P.... predaceous aeolld
Coryphella iodinea (Cooper, 1863) .P purple aeolld
Coryphella longicaudata O'Donoghue, 1922 P long-tail aeolld
Coryphella nobllis A.E. Verrill, 1880 A
Coryphella pelluclda (Alder and Hancock, 1843). . ..A. pellucid aeolld
Coryphella" prlcei MacFarland, 1966... P. smooth-tooth aeolld
Coryphella 9almonacea (Couthouy, 1839) A,P,Ac ....salmon aeolld
Coryphella subrosacea (Eschscholtz, 1831) P
Coryphella trilineata O'Donoghue, 1921 P three-line aeolld
Coryphella trophina (Bergh, 1894) P
Coryphella verrucosa ruf lbranchlalis
(Johnston, 1832). A, (P), Ac.. ....red-finger aeolld
Eubranchus conlcla (Er. Marcus, 1958) A conlcla aeolld
Eubranchus columblanus (O'Donoghue, 1922) P..........
Eubranchus exiguus (Alder and Hancock, 1848). A, Ac dwarf balloon aeolld
Eubranchus mlsakiensis Baba, i960.. ,,P misaki balloon aeolld
Eubranchus ollvaceus (O'Donoghue, 1922).. P.. . . . . . .green balloon aeolld
Eubranchus pallldus (Alder and Hancock, 1842) A
Eubranchus rustyus (Er. Marcus, 1961) .P rustya aeolld
Eubranchus sanjuanensls Roller, 1972 .P
Eubranchus tricolor (Forbes, 1838) A, Ac. ..painted balloon aeolld
Cumanotus beaumontl (Eliot, 1906) ..P. polyp aeolld
S&SL - January, 1985 23
SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME
Catrlona Columbians (O'Donoghue, 1922).... P red-tentacle cuthona
Catrlona gymnota (Couthouy, 1838) .A..
Catrlona maua Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, i960 A.,... maua cuthona
Catrlona rlckettsl Behrens, 1934 P
Cuthona abronla (MacFarland, 1966) P colorful cuthona
Cuthona albocrusta (MacFarland, 1966) P white-crust cuthona
Cuthona aurantla (Alder and Hancock, 1842) ...A, Ac orange-tip cuthona
Cuthona" cocoachroma Williams and Gosliner, 1979... P brown cuthona
Cuthona conclnna (Alder and Hancock, 1843) A,P ....concise cuthona
Cuthona flavovulta (MacFarland, 1966) P.... yellowish cuthona
Cuthona fulgens (MacFarland, 1966) P.... black and yellow cuthona
C uthona lagu nae (O'Donoghue, 1926)....,.,. ,.P .oranged-face cuthona
Cuthona n ana (Alder and Hancock, 1842) ......A
Cuthon a perca (Er. Marcus, 1958) A, P.. . . ,. . .Lake Merritt cuthona
Cuthona phoenix Gosliner, 1981 ...... ..P bornagain cuthona
Cuthona " pustulata (Alder and Hancock, 1845) ?A.
Cuthona stimpsoni~ A.E. Verrill, 1880 A
Cuthona tlna (ErT Marcus, 1957) A
Cuthona veronica (A.E. Verrill, 1880) A
C uthona vlrens TMacFarland, 1966).. .P.... ..green cuthona
Precuthona d lvae Er. Marcus, 1961. ............... .P rose-pink cuthona
Tenellla adspersa (Nordmann, 1845).. P .miniature aeolid
Tenellla fuscata Gould, 1870 A
Tenellla ventilabrum (Dalyell, 1853) A
Terglpes terglpes (Forskal, 1775).. • A, Ac. . .Johnston balloon aeolid
Fiona pinnata (Eschscholtz in Rathke, 1831) A, P..... fiona
Babaklna festiva (Roller, 1972) , ..P single-stalk aeolid
Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967. A..... ••••••••• *
C ratena kaoruae Er. Marcus, 1957 A • •
Cra tena pilata (Gould in Binney, 1870) A
Dondlce occidentalls (Engel, 1925)....... ..A ......western dondice
Emarcusia morroensls Roller, 1972..... ..P., ..... .orange-blotch aeolid
Facelina bostonlensls (Couthouy, 1838). B ......... .A. ........... .Boston facelina
Facelina stearnsl Cockerell, 1901... P scarlet-tip aeolid
Favorinus auritulus Er. Marcus, 1955 ..A.
Godlva rubrolineata Edmunds , 1964 A.
H ermlssenda crassicornis
(Eschscholtz in Rathke, 1831) P. herraissenda
Learchl s poica Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1960. . , .A
Phidlana hlltoni (O'Donoghue, 1927) P pugnaceous aeolid
P hldlana lynceus Bergh, 1 86 7.. ....,....<.......... A.
Sakuraeqlls enoslmensis (Baba, 1930) ..P.. white-tentacle Japanese
Aeolidla papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761) ., A,P,Ac shag rug aeolid
Aeolidiella takanosimensis Baba, 1930 P..verraillion Japanese aeolid
Cerberllla mosslandica McDonald and
Nybakken, 1975. ..P brown burrowing aeolid
Cerberllla tanna Er. Marcus, 1959 A
Baeolidla benteva Er. Marcus, 1958 A
Berghia verrucicornis (O.G. Costa, 1864) A.........
Spurilla chromosoma Cockerell in_ Cockerell
and Eliot, 1905 P frosted spurilla
24 S&SL - January, 1985
SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME
Spurilla neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1823) A,(P) neapolltan spurilla
Spurilla oliviae (MacFarland, 1966) P red-tentacle spurilla
Glaucus atlanticus Forster, 1777 ,.A,(P) blue glaucus
Apodopsis novimundi Pilsbry and McGinty, 1949 A
Blauneria heteroclita (Montagu, 1808) A
Detracia bulloides (Montagu, 1808) A bubble melampus
Detracia clarki Morrison, 1951 A Clark melampus
Detracia floridana (Pfeiffer, 1856) A Florida melampus
Ellobium pellucens (Menke, 1830) A
Laemodonta cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1854) A Cuba dwarf pedipes
Marinula succinea (Pfeiffer, 1854) A Pfeiffer marinula
Melampus bidentatus Say, 1822 A eastern melampus
Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758) A. coffee melampus
Melampus monilis (Bruguiere, 1789) A... Caribbean melampus
Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 P California melampus
Ovatella myosotis (Draparnaud, 1801) A,P
Pedipes angulatus C.B. Adams, 1852 P ...angular pedipes
Pedipes mlrabilis (Muhlfeld, 1816) .A.. ....... .miraculous pedipes
Pedipes unisulcatus Cooper, 1866 P one-groove pedipes
Tralia ovula (Bruguiere, 1789) A egg melampus
Trimusculus carinatus (Dall, 1870) A carinate gadinia
Trimusculus reticulatus (Sowerby, 1835) P reticulate gadinia
Siphonaria alternata Say, 1826 A Say false limpet
Siphonaria brannani Stearns, 1872 P
Siphonaria pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758) A striped false limpet
Siphonaria thersites Carpenter, 1864 P Carpenter false limpet
Williamia krebsii (Morch, 1877) A Krebs false limpet
Williamia peltoides (Carpenter, 1864) P pelta false limpet
Onchidella borealis Dall, 1871 P northwest onchidella
Onchidella carpenter! Binney, 1860 P Carpenter onchidella
Onchidella floridana (Dall, 1885) A Florida onchidella
This completes the section on marine gastropods for North America.
Remember, this is a "Suggested Draft List." It represents currently
"published" systematic arrangement. If you note errors or omissions
within the published scientific literature, send your comments to the
editor. Comments will be incorporated with updates to this list and
published in Shells and Sea Life issues periodically. Still to come are
lists of scaphopods, polyplacophorans, monoplacophorans, cephalopods,
freshwater gastropods, and all bivalves.
S&SL - January, 1985 25
House of Quality and Service
RICHARD M. KURZ, INC.
1575 NORTH 118th STREET
WAUWATOSA, Wl 53226 U.S.A.
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S&SL - January, 1985
by Stephanie Prince
On a trip to San Felipe, Baja, California I was fortunate to find several
beautiful Oliva incrassata Lightfoot, 1786. We had a good low tide and
the water was a good 1/4 of a mile out when we walked to the tide line.
We walked out over the exposed silt, often sinking to our knees in mud.
We found many shells; the most abundant being Oliva incrassata. Some
of the olives were as large as 65 mm and their sand trails looked like a
small bulldozer had been at work (see photo). Smaller trails usually led to
an Olivella or other species.
Oliva incrassata sand trail, (note also the Olivella trails near the large trail).
Photo by David K. Mulliner
Two olive forms from this area are most prized by collectors- a golden
yellow form O. i. burchorum Zeigler, 1969, and beautiful albino form O. i.
nivea Pilsbry, 1910. There is also an extremely rare unnamed black form
reported to come from the San Felipe area. Unfortunately, none of the
rarer forms were found on this trip.
Stephanie Prince, c/o De Portola School, 27031 Preciados, Mission Viejo, CA 92667
S&SL - January, 1985
The Camaenidae: A Diverse Family of Land Mollusks
(Part 1). Richard L. Goldberg
The Camaenidae Moellendorff, 1898, are a large and widespread
family of land mollusks, exhibiting an extremely diverse range of shape,
form and size. Some of the popular genera included in this group are
Pleurodonte of the West Indies, Central and South America, Obba of the
Philippines and north central Indonesia, Papuina of New Guinea and the
Soloman Islands, Amphidromus of southeast Asia, Philippines and
Indonesia, and the Indo-Chinese genus Camaena, among others. There is
an absence of Camaenid species from Tasmania, Southwest Australia, Ar-
gentina, Chile, all of the African Continentand theMalagasy Republic. A
synonym of Camaenidae is Pleurodontidae von Ihering, 1912.
The Camaenids* diversity of shell structure and shape rival that of any
other family of terrestrial mollusks. The type species of the genus
Camaena Albers, 1850, C. cicatricosa (O.F. Mueller, 1774) (Fig. l),is in fact
a sinistral species. The genus Camaena is made up of rather large, thick-
shelled species with a center of distribution in Southeast Asia. Both sin-
istral and dextral forms are found in the genus. Many form names have
been proposed for C. cicatricosa, but their validity is doubtful since the
species varies greatly in individual populations. The habitatdata sentto
me for some specimens collected in Canton, China was, "taken from gar-
A subgenus of Camaena, Pseudobba Moellendorff, 1891, is an interest-
ing group restricted to the high elevations of the northern Celebes and
Sangir, Indonesia. The type species of the subgenus is P. mamilla
(Ferussac) (Fig 2). The nominate forms of this group are characterised
by their typical Camaenid shape, and wrinkled surface. However,
Rench (1933) described a smooth form of P. mamilla called crassiventris
from Mengkoka-Gebirge, Celebes. Other forms of P. mamilla have been
described for wider and narrower specimens. The largest species of this
subgenus is P. quoyi (Deshays), reaching almost two inches in diameter.
Pseudobba species are rare in collections, probably due to their
BELOW: Chloritis ungulina (Linnaeus), Ceram, Indonesia, 44 mm.
28 S&SL - January, 1985
Jay a), 25 mm.
G aimard) ,
S&SL - January, 1985
The genus Chloritis Beck, 1837, is another group of rather large, solid
helical-shaped mollusks with a distribution from New Guinea, Soloman
Islands, through Indonesia. C.ungulina (Linnaeus, 1857) (Fig. 3) is the type
species of the genus, and is characterised by its deep umbilicus and
sunken spire. It is reported to be found in the Moluccas
and Indonesia (Tapparone Canefri, 1883). Specimens at the American
Museum of Natural History have the basic data of Ceram. I know of no
recently collected specimens of C. ungulina, and it is very rare in private
Another similar species of the genus Chloritis, is C. maforensis
(Tapparone Canefri, 1886) (Fig. 4), from Western New Guinea (now
Iraian Jaya, Indonesia). This striking species also has a deep umbilical
region and sunken spire. The type locality is Maf or Island, Western New
Guinea. C. circumdata (Ferussac) is an almost identical species from the
neighboring Aru Islands, and C. maforensis may be in fact a subspecies or
form of circumdata. Since no specimens have been collected recently, fur-
ther research is needed to determine the exact identity of the twospecies.
Not all species of Chloritis exhibit the sunken spire and deep umbilicus.
Seven subgenera cover a wide variety of other species found in Indonesia,
Australia, the Soloman Islands and New Guinea.
A genus closely related to Chloritis is Albersia H. Adams, 1865. The
type species is A. granulata (Quoy & Gaimard) (Fig. 5). This group is
characterised by its rather globose helical, unicolored and thin shells.
The type locality of A. granulata is Port Dorey, New Guinea, island of
Waigeo, (Western New Guinea). The species of Albersia range from New
Guinea to the Moluccas. Not visible in the illustration of A. granulata is
the fine granular, almost stippled surface of the shell. Specimens of A.
granulata are considered quite rare, also due to their inaccessible habitat.
In future parts of this article, other genera of world wide Caniaenidae
will be discussed. In the next part, I will cover the New World genera
including Pleurodonte, Labrinthus, Zachrysia, and other related forms.
van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1958. Non-Marine Mollusca of the Island of Misool. Nova Guinea, new
van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1959. Non-Marine Mollusca of the North Moluccan Islands
Halmahera, Ternate, Batjan and Obi. Treubia, 25(l):25-87.
Pilsbry, H.A. 1891. Gen. Albersia . Manual of Conchology, Sec. Ser., pp. 89-92.
Pilsbry, H.A. 1939. Land Mollusca of North America. 1, part 1, pp. 410-567.
Rensch, B. 1933. Revision und Ergansung der Sarasinschen Rassenkreise celebesischer
Landschnecken. Mitt. ant. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 19:19-120.
Smith, B.J. & R.C. Kershaw 1979. Field Guide to the Non-Marine Molluscs of South Eastern
Australia. Austral. Nat. Univ. Press, pp. 1-285.
Solem, A. 1978. Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Camaenid Land Snails from Western North America.
Journ. Paleontol., 52(3):581-589.
Tapparone Canefri, C. 1883. Intorno Ad Alcuni Molluschi Terrestri delle Molucche e di Selebes.
Ann. del Mus. Civ. di St. Nat. de Genova. pp. 1-35.
Tapparone Canefri, C. 1883. Fauna Malacologica della Nuova Guinea Parte I - Molluschi
Estramarini. Tipog. del R. Istit. Sordo-Muti, Genova, pp. 1-313.
Tapparone Canefri, C. 1886. Fauna Malacologia della Nuova Guinea - Suppiemento I., pp. 1-87.
Wurz, C.B. 1955. The American Camaenidae. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 107:99-143.
Yen, T.C. 1939. Die chinesischen Land- und Suesswasser-Gastropoden des Natur-Museums
Senckenberg. Frankfurt am Main, pp. 1-204.
Zilch, A. 1959-1960. Gastropoda. Euthyneura. Handb. Palaeosoologie, 6:596-626.
Richard Goldberg, P.O. Box 137, Fresh Meadows, NY 11365.
30 S&SL - January, 1985
WORLDWIDE SPECIMEN SHELLS
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c HUl de ^er* €nterpri*e4
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shells to be found anywhere! Complete stocks of
Cypraea, Conus. Mure*, Pectens. Miters, etc. for the
beginning as well as the most advanced
Send lor FREE Price List.
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Heart ol The Island Plaza
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FINE QUALITY SPECIMEN SHELLS
S&SL - January, 1985
From James Blaser: Enclosed is my renewal check .... Congratulations
on the quality of SHELLS and SEA LIFE. Illustrations are superb.
Proofreaders are obviously at work. Many articles are outside my own
fields of interest, but they are so well presented and illustrated that I
enjoy and learn from them. At one time or another, since becoming inter-
ested in malacology in 1956, 1 have recieved a multitude of publications,
scientific and popular. SHELLS and SEA LIFE and HAWIIAN SHELL
NEWS are now my two contacts with the malacological world.
The beautiful illustrated article by Dr. Vokes epitomizes the joys and
frustrations of shellstudy. Many familiarspecies are illustrated anddis-
cussed, but the nomenclature is impossible. Esoteric changes seem to
occur endlessly. The comment "... no members of Murex s.s. in the New
World..." (p. 215, Note 1.) leavesme hopelessly confused. I fearl shallcon-
tinue to file the humble apple Murex under Murex pomum Gmelin. No
Phyllonotus, Chicoreus, Hexaplex, or Murexiella for me. The splitters are
triumphant. [James Blaser, 1846 Laurel Lane, Amhurst, OH 44001].
From Luis D. Beltr&n: I would appreciate if you, or any of the readers
of Shells and Sea Life can give me any further information on where I
can contact Dr. Thomas V. Borkowski, who has done a great deal of
research on the mollusks of rocky intertidal shores, especiallyon theperi-
winkles (genus Littorina). I have inquired of Dr. (R. Tucker) Abbott on
the subject, as well as Dr. Joseph Rosewater (Smithsonian Institution,
Washington DC), but none of them seem to know where he might be at
present. Thanks for your attention, and keep up the good work on your
fine journal. [Luis D. Beltran, Ernesto Cadiz St. #26, Juncos, P.R. 00666]
From Manuel Ballesteros: I send
you the logo of a divers club we
have founded at the biology fac-
ulty of the Barcelona University
and named C.I.B., of which I am the
president. The logo was drawn by
Daniel Martin, a biologist and
managing member of the club.
The nudibranch is Platydoris
atromaculata, a common species
from the Mediterranean sea. Our
objectives are to popularise marine
biology between the current people
and to encourage future marine
biologists by means of diving
courses. [Manuel Ballesteros
Vazquez, Dept. Zoologica, Fac.
Biologica, University Barcelona,
Av. Diagonal, 637-647, Barcelona -
S&SL - January, 1985
From Gerard Venken: Enclosed
is a picture I took myself at the
yearly big day of the Dutch-
Belgium Shell Association. Many
people had their stand to sell their
sometimes highly valued shells
(like a fabulous Strombus goliath
nearly unchipped, big smooth col-
ored mouth + operc: $200.00
approximately). I made a stand on
SHELLS and SEA LIFE there too.
My association enjoyed my idea
and even took the issues home to
study them. They all find it
mighty good work but for the
moment the exchange rate is poor
in relation to the dollar, (now
approximately 62 Belgian Francs
they used to be 50 and once stood
28. I am happy with the issues and
this year too I will stay a member.
[Ed. Subscriptions may now be paid
in most foreign currencies. We
hope this makes it easier for your
friends to subscribe.] [Gerard
Venken, Schoolstraat 21, B-3500
Sally and Travis Payne won the
DuPont Trophy at the Cincinnati
Shell Club's third Tri-State Shell
Show October 13-14, for their
exhibit entitled H Phylum Mol-
lusca", which showed the charac-
teristics and habitats of the seven
classes of mollusks.
The COA, Display Techniques
Award, Peoples Choice Award, and
Exhibitors Choice Award all went
to Judith Brooks of the Crown
Point Shell Club for her marvelous
exhibit of Cypraea.
Shell of the Show went to
Roberta Cranmer's beautiful
S&SL - January, 1985
Seashell Stamps. Tom Rice
FINALLY!! On September 21, 1984 Postmas-
ter General William F. Bolger announced
designs for U.S. SEASHELL STAMPS! The
fact that the United States would issue a book-
let with shell-design stamps had been made
known months ago and the booklet was origi-
nally scheduled for release in 1984. It has
been delayed until some time in 1985.
The seashell booklet will consist of two
panes of stamps, each pane having 10 stamps,
two each with the 5 shell designs. From top to
bottom of the pane, the stampsshow: thefrilled
dogwinkle, the reticulated helmet, New
England neptune, calico scallop and lightning
whelk. The denomination of the stamps likely
will be 22 cents each.
So, finally, the United States joins the ranks
of those countries with seashell stamps. About
Tom Rice, Of Sea and Shore Museum, Port Gamble, WA98364.
Mary "Pecten" Flenz won the du Pont Trophyat theSanta Barbarashell
show October 13-14, 1984, for her exhibit on the new seashell stamps fea-
turing shells. Congratulations Mary (and John)! See photo below.
S&SL - January, 1985
ra mm mmmm®
. . Buys, Soils and Exchanges
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When in Los Angeles visit: The Sea
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MANUEL O. MONTI LLA
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Dealer of quality Philippines Specimen Shells
Block Coral Bangles, Chokers, Necklaces
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The Water Window
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Worldwide Specimen Shells
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Shelling with Schelling
Shalimar, Florida 32579 U.S.A. (904) 244-5646
S&SL - January, 1985
David K. Mulliner
These shells were photographed with a
Nikon camera witha micro55 lens(adding
a bellows when the shell was less than
20mm). I always set the aperture at F22 or
F32 to obtain maximum depth of field (to
keep it all in focus). Theshells wereplaced
on a wire rod (using sticky wax) above a
black velvet background. Two photof lood
lights were placed at a 45°angle above and
opposite the shell with a black cardboard
tent-like arrangement toprevent thelights
from shining on the velvet. I used
tungsten film at the exposure indicated
by the meter reading with a 1/4 stop each
side (bracketing exposures is necessary to
obtain the best color rendition).
The illustrated shells were collected on
the exposed reefs, and by snorkeling and
SCUBA diving in deeper water at the
Vava'u Island group, Tonga, South Pacific
in May, 1978.
David K. Mulliner, 5283 Vickie Drive
San Diego, CA 92109
AT RIGHT: Scabricola desetangsii (Kiener, 1838), 28mm.
BELOW: Natica violacea Sowerby, 1825, 17mm.
S&SL - January, 1985
ABOVE: Cypraea humphreysii Gray, 1825, 11mm.
Conus imperialis Linnaeug. 1758, 60mm. Imbricaria conularis (Lamarck. 1811), 12mm.
S&SL - January, 1985
Rates: $4.00 per line - single insert; $3.50 per
line multiple insert, prepaid. We reserve the
right to modify copy to fit paid lines.
For Sale - Retail
I am disposing of very fine Florida tree snails
LIGUUS FASCIATUS and a few sets of Cuban
POLYMITA from my personal collection. Write
for free list. No dealers please. Archie L.Jones,
8025 SW 62 Ct, Miami, FL33143.
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RICK GREGORY; 1219 South BananaRiver
Dr.; Merritt Island, FL32952. Wholesale
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sale. Free lists.
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EXPORTER OF BUTTERFLY, insect, bee-
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Bianchi's Pink House Eff. Motel; 310 Pear Tree
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COMMERCIAL & SPECIMEN shells,
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wanted. Price lists requested. Diana Pierre;
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Available from Seashell Treasures Books, 505 E.
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ85012. Phone (602) 274-
3615. We will exchange your used books for
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all used books. No discounts.
685 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 87-93 (1973-1979)
686 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 90 (1976) GD
687 MALACOLOGICAL REVIEW Vol. 12
(1979) EX $15.00
688 MALACOLOGICAL REVIEW Vol. 10
(1977) EX $15.00
689 KEEN, A.M. 1971. Sea Shells Tropial West
Amer. 2nd ed. GD $27.50
690 KEEN, A.M. 1963. Marine Molluscan
Genera Western N.A. GD $10.75.
691 QUIRK & HARRISON 1972. Hawaiian
Seashells. GD $2.75
692 INDO-PACIFIC MOLLUSCA Cassidae in
Binder #2. GD $19.75.
693 D'ATTILIO, A. Seashore Life Coloring
Book, EX $1.50.
694 ABBOTT, R.T. Sea Shells of the World,
Golden Nature Guide. $1.95.
695 BAKER & HANNA1927. Marine Mollusca
Order Opisthobranchiata. Proc. Calif. Acad.
Sci., 16(5):123-135, pi. 4. $2.25.
S&SL - January, 1985
Observations of a Dwarf Octopus. Octopus micropyrsus .
by Peter L. Haaker
One of the smallest, and least known, octopuses occurs in the waters of
Southern California. Octopus micropyrsus Berry, 1953, grows to only 25
mm in dorsal mantle length, a size which probably relegates it to relative
anonymity. It has been foundliving ingastropod shellsand theholdfasts
of giant Kelp. Its range is from Santa Barbara to San Diego, including
the Channel Islands (Hochberg and Fields, 1980).
In many years of diving, I had never observed this species. In May
1982, on an abalone transplant evaluation survey, I had the occasion to
photograph this unusual octopus. In the course of our work, Mia Tegner,
of Scripps Institution, had broken a short horizontal mudstone pinnacle
riddled with piddock clam bores, and had found a small octopusguarding
eggs at the inner end of an empty piddock hole. We replaced the pinna-
cle, marked the spot, and returned to the boat for my camera.
Later, while re-opening the den for photographs, I apparently ruptured
one of the eggs. A miniature fully developed octopus scurried out of the
den and disappeared into another piddock hole (Photo # 924). The adult,
presumably a female, was quite defensive of the remaining eggs, which
were well along in their development. Close inspection of the pho-
tographs revealed a single well pigmented octopus in each egg. The adult
did not try to leave the clutch of eggs, a behavior similar to that observed
in other egg guarding octopuses.
The photographs showed a total of four eggs in this den (Photo # 925).
The large egg size is a requirement of having fully developed juvenilesat
hatching. The small adult size limits the number of such eggs that can be
guarded by any individual.
Octopus micropyrsus can have fewer eggs because of its cryptic nature,
defense of the nest, and especially because of the advanced development
at hatching, which eliminates theplanktonic stages, where high mortality
occurs. This adaptation is a classic example of how fecundity may be
reduced by better protecting the early life stages.
Field notes: These observations were made on May 19, 1982, at Palos
Verdes Point, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Los Angeles County, California.
Water depth was about 10 m. Neither the adult, any juveniles, nor eggs
Hochberg, F.G., Jr., & W.G. Fields 1980. Cephalopoda: The Squids and Octopuses, p. 437. In:
Morris, R.H., D. P. Abbott &E.C. Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford Univ.
Press, Palo Alto, California, 690 p.
Peter L. Haaker, California Dept of Fish and Game, 1301 W. 12th St, Long Beach, CA 90813.
See photographs back page.
S&SL - January, 1985 39
I Berry, 1953
See Article inside back cover.
S&SL - January, 1985